Pediatric ATV Facial and Ocular Injuries in the United States
Logan Wolford; John Pennacchio, III; John Nguyen; Geoffrey E. Bradford
West Virginia University
Introduction: It is estimated that over 40,000 all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-associated injuries occur every year in the United States involving children 2-18 years of age. Of these, there are close to 3,500 injuries annually to the face and ocular regions. The purpose of this project is to identify trends in emergency department visits for ATV-related facial and ocular injuries in the last 11 years.
Methods: Data on ATV injuries from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 2006-2016 in the pediatric population (age 2-18) were utilized. Sample weights were applied to estimate yearly national injury trends. The data were assessed for overall injury numbers, male:female ratio, age of injured, setting, cases without helmet usage, location and type of facial/ocular injury, and mechanism of injury.
Results: Estimated US emergency department visits for ATV facial and ocular injuries declined over the last 11 years from 4,798 to 3,405. The mean age of injury was 10.1 years, with males injured more than females (67% males). In recent years, the rate of children riding without helmets has incrreynolreynoreeased to 18% of all injury cases. Facial lacerations account for the majority of injuries, followed by fractures (orbital, mandibular and nasal). Falls from ATVs and ATV rollovers were the most prominent mechanisms of injury. Ocular injuries followed similar trends, with corneal abrasion and eyebrow laceration being the most common (26.3% and 27% respectively), followed by eyelid injury (15.6%) and orbital fracture (11.3%).
Discussion: While the number of pediatric facial and ocular injuries from ATV accidents has decreased over the past 11 years, the percentage of riders without helmets has increased. With over 3,400 facial and ocular injuries reported in 2016 alone, education in the importance of helmet usage with eye protection and enforcement of ATV safety regulations remain critical to further reduce facial and ocular injury rates in children.
Conclusion: Eyelid and eyebrow lacerations, orbital fractures, and corneal abrasions are common oculofacial injuries seen in ATV accidents involving children. It is important to encourage helmet use in addition to ATV safety in order to decrease injuries and fatalities.
US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Web-based National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). 2017. Available at: https://www.cpsc.gov/cgibin/NEISSQuery/home.aspx . Accessed Sep 18, 2017
US Consumer Product Safety Commission. NEISS Coding Manual, January 2013. Bethesda, MD. US Consumer Product Safety Commission; 2017. Available at: https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/2017_NEISS_Coding_Manual_CPSC_only_Nontrauma.pdf?fEDHY06s94u0x0HsAtwiSPLW7NUcvLMi. Accessed Sep 18, 2017
All-Terrain Vehicle–Related Nonfatal Injuries Among Young Riders in the United States, 2001–2010
Ruth A. Shults, Bethany A. West, Rose A. Rudd, James C. Helmkamp Pediatrics Aug 2013, 132 (2) 282-289; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2013-0751