Computed Tomography (CT) Based 3D Modeling to Provide Custom 3D Printed Glasses for Children with Craniofacial Abnormalities
Frank L. Brodie, MD; Vinil Shah, MD; Vivek Swarnakar, PhD; Stephen Thompson; Tatiana Kelil; Derrick Gillan; Dylan Romero; Alejandra De Alba Campomanes, MD
University of California San Francisco
San Francisco, California
Introduction: Children with craniofacial abnormalities frequently have a variety of ophthalmic problems including high rates of refractive error with oblique astigmatism and anisometropia. In order to prevent amblyopia spectacle use is critical but very challenging given the mechanical difficulty of wearing glasses beyond the normal problems of spectacle adherence in the pediatric population.
Methods: Existing head CT scans are transformed into 3D models upon which custom computer aided design (CAD) models of glasses frames are developed. These unique glasses frames are then printed using a 3D printer.
Results: We have developed well-fitting custom 3D printed glasses for a 5-year-old patient with craniosynostosis and other craniofacial abnormalities that prevented the use of conventional glasses.
Discussion: We take advantage of the extensive imaging patients with craniofacial abnormalities routinely undergo to generate high-quality 3D model upon which custom glasses frames can be designed. 3D printing allows for rapid, cost-effective production of entirely customized glasses frames for each patient.
Conclusion: The use of new digital modeling and 3D printing technology allows us to bring new custom solutions to our patients that are not well served by ‘off the rack’ products. Additionally, as the design process is entirely digital and based on existing radiologic data, these custom glasses could be developed remotely for patients throughout the world.
References: Khan SH, Nischal KK, Dean F, Hayward RD, Walker J. Visual outcomes and amblyogenic risk factors in craniosynostotic syndromes: a review of 141 cases. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003;87(8):999-1003.