Rubella Virus a Cause of Congenital Cataract – Not To Be Forgotten
Seema Qayyum; Asma Mushtaq; Sabrina Sharif; Zahid Dogar
The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child Health, Lahore
Introduction: Despite a reduction in disease burden of quite a few vaccine-preventable diseases through childhood immunization, congenital rubella syndrome continues to be an important cause of avoidable morbidity in developing countries1. This study is conducted to determine the contribution of Rubella infection towards the development of congenital cataract.
Methods: The data of the patients less than one year of age (n=384) admitted for the management of congenital cataract from January 2012 – December 2016 was reviewed. Blood samples of all the infants were tested for the presence of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) method. The data were statistically analyzed using Microsoft excel software.|
Results: A total of 384 patient’s data was included in the study. Rubella-specific IgM and IgG were found in 69 (17.9%) infants of whom 93% were less than six months of age, mean age being 2.9mths +/- 2.1(SD). Associated ocular problems such as microphthalmos were seen in 16 infants (23.1%). Glaucoma was however not so common present only in 6 infants (8.6%). Cardiac involvement was seen in 19 patients (27.5%).|
Discussion: The results of the study are indicative of high prevalence rate for Rubella infection in our part of the world.|
Conclusion: Proper surveillance and immunization against rubella is highly imperative in reducing the long-term morbidity such as childhood blindness, deafness, cardiac malformations and mental retardation2.
References: 1. Garden D. Burden of Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) in India: 2012.
2. Satti Abdelrahm Satti, Ebthal Elyas Mohammad AMF. Screening of infants with congenital cataract for rubella infection. Ann Trop Med public Heal. 2016;9(1):19-22.